Zika Virus Disease: Epidemiology, Mode of Transmission & Complications

Zika Virus Disease

Zika Virus Disease is a number of the virus family Flaviviridae transmitted by day time-active Aedes mosquitoes. Its name comes the zika forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947.

Zika virus is related to dengue, yellow, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. The illness causes are similar to a mild form of dengue fever. It is treated by rest and cannot yet be prevented by drugs or vaccines.

However, mother to child transmission (MTCT),. there is a possible link between zika virus disease and microcephaly in newborn babies. The first alert on this disease was issued by the pan American Health America Organization (PAHO) when the disease first broke out in brazil.

 

Epidemiology

The global distribution of the most cited carriers of the virus spreading due to global trade and travel. A mosquito population capable of carrying the virus has been found in a capitol hill neighborhood of Washington D.C, and genetic evidence suggests they survive at least the last four winters in the region.

 

Mode of Transmission

Today, the disease is spreading with the first transmission through intercourse discovered in the United States. But the worrisome side to this disease is its effects on pregnant women infected with Zika virus. It could come up with a condition known as microcephaly, which is when the woman gives birth to a baby with a small head.

Additionally, the deadly virus RNA was detected in the amniotic fluid of two foetuses, indicating that it had crossed the placenta and could cause a mother to child transmission (MTCT). There is a possible link between zika virus and microcephaly in newborn babies.

 

Signs and Symptoms

The most common symptoms of the virus include; fever, rash, malaria, conjunctivitis (red eyes), joint pain, muscle pain, Headache. However, its symptoms are similar to those of dengue fever and chikungunya disease spread through the same mosquitoes that transmit zika.

 

Complications Of Zika Virus Disease

  • Impairment in learning
  • Seizure
  • Developmental delays such as speech, sitting, standing, walking, hearing and vision problems among others.

 

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