Rotavirus Disease is the most common cause of diarrhea worldwide, accounting for 134 million episodes yearly. Virtually all children have been infected by the age of 4 years. Rotavirus could be caused by group A or B,, and its reservoir is human. The incubation period is very short which is between 24 to48 hours.
Signs and symptoms
Normally, the symptoms start with the patient initially experiencing fever and vomiting then subsequently, there is the passage of watery stool containing blood, dehydration, dry mouth, pains, poor response to stimuli.
Epidemiology of the Virus
Most infections are caused by group A virus, although group B has caused a widespread outbreak in china. The peak age-specific prevalence is in children between 6 to 24 months.
Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route due to poor standards of personal and environmental hygiene, person to person and contaminated water.
The virus is identified in the stool by ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunological Assay) Electron microscopy, passive particle agglutination techniques
Control measures of RotaVirus Disease
- High standards of personal hygiene and sanitary practices should be employed.
- Although the high level personal sanitary practices may not be entirely successful because the virus survives in contaminated water on hands and is resistant to commonly used disinfectants
- It is inactivated by chlorine
- An effective vaccine has been produced in the name of rota vaccine, given at 6 weeks and 10 weeks respectively
- Improved environmental hygiene is also encouraged.
Integrated country plans by developing nations plan across all sectors to provide the basis for co-ordinate technical and financial support.
Pandemic preparedness or epidemic preparedness by conducting a national (global pandemic) epidemic response exercise, enhancing health system and training clinicians and managers.
Note: It is one of the most common viral infections transmitted through to gastrointestinal tract.
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