Measles: Its Host factors,symptoms and Prevention in Children

Measles: Its Host factors,symptoms and Prevention in Children

Measles: Its Host factors, symptoms and Prevention in Children-measles is an acute infectious disease of childhood caused by a specific virus of the group of paramyxoviruses of the genes morbilli. It is clinically characterized by fever and catarrhal symptoms of the upper respiratory system, which is followed by typical maculopapular skin rash and kopliks’s spot. The word Runeola means red spots.

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Host Factors of Measles

Age: It affects in infancy or childhood between 6months and 3years of age in developing countries, where environmental conditions are generally poor and older children usually over 5years in developed countries.

Immunity: No age is immune if there was no previous immunity. One attack of measles generally confers life long immunity, second attacks are rare.at any season

Nutrition: Measles tends to be very severe in the malnourished children having measles.

Environmental Factors: The virus can spread at any season; dry season brings on measles in sub-Sahara Africa.

In temperate climates, measles is a water disease probably because people crowed together indoors. Measles: Its Host factors, symptoms and Prevention in Children

 

Signs and Symptoms

1. Prodromal Phase

  • Begins 10 days after infection and lasts until 14days
  • Characterized by fever, coryza with sneezing and nasal discharge, cough, redness of eyes, lacrimation (excessive secretion of tears) and often photophobia
  • There may be vomiting or diarrhea, a day or two before the appearance of the general rash,koplik’s spots appear on the buccal mucosa opposite the first and second upper molars.

2. Eruptive Phase

  • This phase is characterized by a typical dusky red macular or maculopapular rash that starts behind the ear and spreads rapidly in a few hours over the face and neck extends down the body taking 2 to 3 days to progress to the lower extremities. The rash may remain discrete, but often it becomes confluent and blotchy.

3. Post-Measles State

  • The child must have lost weight and remain weak for a number of days. Failure to recover may be there and also gradual deterioration into clinic illness as a result of increased and susceptibility to other bacterial and viral infections, nutritional and metabolic effects and the destructive effects of the virus.

 

Prevention of Measles in Children

  • Measles Vaccination: This is the best prevented by active immunization, Only live attenuated is advancing are recommended for us, they are both safe and effective.
  • Age: Immunization is given at the age of 9 months, and the vaccine administered at an angle subcutaneous dose.
  • Immunity: Immunity develops 11 to 12 days after vaccination and appears to be of a long duration, probably for life. One dose of the measle vaccine appears to give 95% protection.
  • Isolation of the patient and avoidance of any close contact with the patient.
  • Adequate disposal of secretions of the patients is needed and proper disinfection.

 

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